First Steps in Non-standard Projective Geometry


In this article, we will introduce methods of non-standard analysis into projective geometry. Especially, we will analyze the properties of a projective space over a non-Archimedean field. Non-Archimedean fields contain numbers that are smaller than every real number: the so called ‘infinitesimal’ numbers. The theory is well known from non-standard analysis. This enables us to define projective objects that deviate only infinitesimally (in an appropriate metric) from each other. And we show that in most cases operations involving such objects that deviate infinitesimally also experience only infinitesimal change. Another focus will be where this property does not hold true and show that this usually involves discontinuity or degeneration. Furthermore, we will explore common projective concepts like projective transformations, cross-ratios and conics in a non-standard setting.